Top 5 Flatwork Exercises to Improve Your Horses' Performance

By Jamie Finch | 16th August 2023

A horse being ridden

Equine training is a harmonious dance of communication and cooperation between rider and horse, where each partner strives to achieve a seamless connection. 

At the heart of this partnership lies the art of flatwork – a fundamental aspect of equine development that serves as the cornerstone for enhancing performance and refining behaviour. 

Flatwork, often regarded as the foundation of equestrian disciplines, involves a series of exercises performed on a flat surface, such as a riding arena, that focuses on refining the horse's movements, responsiveness, and suppleness.

In this blog, I delve into flatwork exercises, exploring how they contribute to the overall development of equine athletes. 

I'll uncover the significance of these exercises in fostering flexibility, balance, coordination, and obedience. 

By honing in on the top five flatwork exercises, I aim to provide novice and experienced riders with insights and practical guidance on incorporating these exercises into their training routines.

The Essence of Flatwork: Elevating Equine Performance

Flatwork, often called "dressage on the flat," embodies the heart and soul of equine training. 

This artful practice focuses on refining the horse's natural movements, developing its physical abilities, and fostering a strong mental connection between horse and rider. 

By engaging in flatwork exercises, riders lay the foundation for a well-rounded and versatile equine partner.

Mastering Circles and Serpentines: The Dance of Suppleness

Circles and serpentines are fundamental flatwork exercises that form the building blocks of a horse's flexibility and suppleness. 

These exercises encourage the horse to bend its body and engage its hindquarters, promoting a harmonious flow of movement. 

The primary goal is to create a seamless curve while maintaining rhythm and balance.

Step-by-Step Execution

  1. Begin in a balanced and relaxed trot or canter.
  2. Choose a focal point as the centre of your circle or serpentine.
  3. Apply gentle inside rein pressure and rotate your hips in the direction you want your horse to go to guide the horse's shoulder in the desired direction.
  4. Use your outside leg slightly behind the girth to encourage hindquarters engagement and maintain the bend.
  5. As you approach the halfway point of the circle or serpentine, shift your aids to guide the horse's body in the opposite direction.
  6. Focus on keeping a consistent tempo and bend throughout the exercise.

Addressing Common Mistakes and Corrections

As you incorporate circles and serpentines into your flatwork routine, your equine partner becomes more fluid and responsive to your cues. 

These exercises lay the groundwork for our subsequent exercises, enhancing your horse's overall performance and behaviour. 

So, put on your riding gloves and refine your horse's suppleness and dance-like grace through the art of circles and serpentines.

Achieving Lateral Suppleness: The Elegance of Leg Yielding

Leg yielding is a quintessential flatwork exercise that introduces lateral movement to the horse's repertoire. 

The primary objective of this exercise is to enhance the horse's lateral suppleness and responsiveness to the rider's aids. 

Leg yielding promotes straightness and engagement, making it a valuable skill across various riding disciplines.

Step-by-Step Execution

  1. Begin in a balanced and active walk or trot.
  2. Choose a line or track where you wish to execute the leg yield.
  3. Apply slight inside leg pressure at the girth to encourage the horse's forequarters to move away from the pressure.
  4. Maintain even contact on both reins to prevent the horse from over-bending its neck.
  5. Use your outside leg slightly behind the girth to guide the horse's hindquarters towards the inside.
  6. Allow the horse to move sideways while keeping their body parallel to the track.

Achieving Optimal Positioning

You're guiding your horse toward greater lateral flexibility and harmonious movement by incorporating leg yielding into your flatwork routine. 

This exercise cultivates heightened communication and trust between you and your equine partner, setting the stage for exploring other impactful flatwork exercises. 

As you embark on mastering leg yielding, revel in the elegance of lateral suppleness and watch your horse transform into a more versatile and well-rounded athlete.

Seamless Transitions: Elevating Responsiveness and Harmony

Transitions – the art of smoothly changing gaits or speeds – lie at the heart of equine communication and control. 

This flatwork exercise aims to refine the horse's responsiveness to the rider's aids, enhancing its ability to shift seamlessly between different paces. 

Transitions demonstrate the horse's obedience and contribute to its overall balance and engagement.

Step-by-Step Practice

  1. Begin in a balanced gait, such as trot or canter.
  2. Prepare the horse using your seat, leg, and rein aids to signal the upcoming transition.
  3. Gradually apply the necessary aids for the transition, maintaining clear communication.
  4. Guide the horse to the new gait or speed, ensuring your horse maintains rhythm and balance.
  5. Use your seat and leg aids to stabilise the horse's new pace and encourage engagement.

Striving for Seamless Execution

As you integrate transitions into your flatwork regimen, you'll witness your horse's ability to shift effortlessly between paces, showcasing your horse's adaptability and coordination. 

These seamless transitions lay the groundwork for more intricate exercises, reinforcing the connection between rider and horse. 

With every successful transition, you'll enhance the language of communication you share with your equine partner, fostering a harmonious bond that will serve you well in training and performance arenas.

Precision and Mobility: Unveiling Shoulder-In and Haunches-In

Shoulder-In and Haunches-In, two distinct lateral movements, add a new layer of sophistication to flatwork exercises. 

These exercises challenge the horse's ability to move diagonally and laterally while maintaining balance and alignment. 

Shoulder-In involves positioning the horse's forehand inward, while Haunches-In focuses on moving the hindquarters inward.

Step-by-Step Execution 


  1. Begin in a collected trot or canter.
  2. Apply inside leg pressure at the girth to encourage the horse's shoulder to move inward.
  3. Use your outside rein to prevent the horse's neck from over-bending.
  4. Guide the horse's forehand diagonally across the track while maintaining forward impulsion.


  1. Start in a collected trot or canter.
  2. Apply outside leg pressure behind the girth to encourage the hindquarters to move inward.
  3. Use your inside rein to maintain the horse's bend and prevent over-flexion.
  4. Guide the horse's hindquarters diagonally across the track while preserving engagement.

Overcoming Common Challenges

As you introduce shoulder-in and haunches-in into your flatwork repertoire, you're delving into precision and mobility. 

These lateral movements require finesse and coordination, strengthening the horse's physical capabilities and understanding of nuanced cues. 

With patience and practice, you'll witness these exercises' elegance of diagonal movement, further deepening your equine partnership and opening doors to advanced training techniques.

Harmonizing Strides: Lengthening and Collection

Lengthening and collection exercises are two sides of a coin, offering contrasting yet interconnected benefits to the horse's overall performance. 

Lengthening strides encourage the horse to cover more ground with each step, promoting an extended reach and a sense of freedom. 

Conversely, collection involves gathering the horse's energy and impulsion, resulting in shorter, more powerful strides that enhance engagement.

Step-by-Step Practice 


  1. Begin in a working gait, such as trot or canter.
  2. Gradually ask the horse to reach forward and extend its stride while maintaining rhythm.
  3. Maintain light contact on the reins to allow the horse to stretch without losing connection.
  4. Focus on the horse's willingness to move freely while maintaining control.


  1. The transition from lengthening to the collection by using half-halts to gather the horse's energy.
  2. Encourage the horse to bring its hindquarters underneath its body, resulting in shorter, more powerful strides.
  3. Maintain consistent contact on the reins to support the horse's engagement.
  4. Aim for balance and a feeling of containment in the horse's movements.

Emphasising Rhythm and Balance

Incorporating lengthening and collection exercises into your flatwork routine adds dimension to your horse's movement capabilities. 

These exercises embody the concept of balance – the balance between reaching forward and gathering energy. 

With dedicated practice, you'll experience the harmonious integration of lengthened and collected strides, cultivating a versatile equine partner capable of adapting to a wide range of demands and enhancing performance and behaviour.

From Basics to Brilliance: Progression in Flatwork Mastery


Beyond physical movements, this exploration reveals flatwork as a language of unity, communication, and understanding. 

From the elegant arcs of circles to the precision of lateral movements, rhythmic transitions, and the equilibrium of collection and extension, we've witnessed these exercises' transformative power. 

As responsiveness deepens, a connection fortified by cues and trust emerges, culminating in movements that mirror true partnership. 

While this journey concludes, it signifies a new beginning, where the principles of flatwork become a guiding compass for advancing skills. Armed with knowledge and refined techniques, you're prepared for your unique equine adventure, where the enduring beauty of flatwork mastery shapes every stride and fosters an enduring bond.

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